Finally, the study is also hoped to contribute to national and international debates on Inclusive Education growing global literature on educators’ attitudes toward inclusive education and the specific factors / educator variables that impact on these attitudes and the implementation of effective inclusive practices. These findings support the theoretical framework of the study that positive contact leads to favorable attitudes toward inclusion in a learning situation (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. On the other hand teachers were least willing to include those students with intellectual disabilities such as language disabilities. 2000; Kuyini & Desai, 2008). This study recommends future research into teachers` knowledge of inclusion and government policy document on Inclusive Education. Kvale, Steiner (1997). Further, principals and teachers have often demonstrated considerable lack of knowledge about students with disabilities and inclusion (Schumm & Vaughn; 1995; Tomlinson, Callahan, Eiss, Imbeau, & Landrum, 1997), and teachers have often used more undifferentiated large-group instruction with few adaptations to meet the needs of included students (Baker & Zigmond, 1990; Kuyini & Desai, 2008). Exceptional Children, 64 (1), 31-47. on inclusive education Sensitize all staff Engage community & media Build capacity of support services Train & deploy more SEN resource teachers PO4: Ensure sustainability of Inclusive Education Implementation. 11.) Cornoldi, C., Terreni, A., Scruggs, T., Mastropieri, M. (1998). Reconciling context and contact effects on racial attitudes. Ntombela, S. (2011) the progress of inclusive education in South Africa. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND THE CURRICULUM (i) Sub-theme 1. In the International Journal of Special Education, 15 (1) 86-95. Focusing on inclusive education can All interviews were transcribed, and the unstructured qualitative data was coded and categorised according to the main procedures and techniques of Grounded Theory (Wesley, 2010; Kvale 1997). It presents the essential features of inclusive education systems and recognis es the need to take action to make inclusive education a reality for all learners. (2007). In The International Journal on School Disaffection, 1 (1) 36-44. (1998). (2009). In this regard, the findings of this study were similar to other studies. The last students` socialisation with others is minimal. Anthony, J. Anthony (2011), allude to the idea that positive attitudes about the inclusion of students with disabilities into mainstream classes are often dependent on the provision of adequate support services. Peer acceptance, self-perceptions, and social skills of learning disabled students prior to identification. Kennedy, H.C., Shukla, S. & Fryxell, D. (1997). The implementation of public policy coupled with teacher attitudes toward persons with disabilities in Ghana has been saddled with problems. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers` attitudes in implementing Inclusive Education in primary and junior high secondary schools in two districts in Ghana (Bole and New Juaben). Another teacher added; we can deal with a child having social problems not those with visual and hearing impairment. 2000), and that administrators at their schools lack the understanding to effectively implement inclusive practices (Cook, et al. Measuring Concerns about Integrated Education in India. Ad Notan Gyldendal Mastropieri, M. & Scruggs, T. (2000). Multilevel inclusive education is co-learning in regular classes of students with different classes, ages, and abilities, to … As more children with physical, intellectual, emotional, and other impairments learn alongside typical children, teachers continue to discover how to include these students in their classroom. Key words: school, inclusive education, children with the need for special social support. (1993). Responses of students were quoted verbatim. It could be inferred from teachers` responses that attitudes of teachers` to implement inclusion is related to the type of disability and severity. New Jersey. The phrase "inclusive education" has attracted much attention in recent years. 20 students were also interviewed. (2000). After twenty years of inclusion. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. inclusive society is dependent on how well social services are planned, prepared and supported. Partial Inclusion 2. It should be noted that students` identity, self –awareness and self-esteem are developed through relationships with others, teaching social skills to students with variable social deficits may benefit peer interaction in a learning environment (Pettigrew, 1998). A survey into mainstream teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school in one local education authority. Educators continue to debate and determine the best ways to teach students with disabilities. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 12, 97-113. In: International Journal of Inclusive Education. Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P. & Burden, R. (2000). Based on the theoretical framework used in the study, the results showed differences of teachers` attitudes depending on the type of students` disabilities and disability severity. Cook, B. G. (2001). (2000), Kuyini & Desai (2009), Agbenyega, & Deku, (2011) that experience working with disabled students and small class-sizes had positive effects on attitudes toward inclusion. 58 Cross-National Differences in Special Education A Typological Approach, Education in the Commonwealth: Quality Education for Equitable Development, An Assessment of Ghana's Enacted Kindergarten Curriculum, Primary Education Sector Assessment and Diagnosis: A Case Study in the Republic Of Ghana, Basic education beyond the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Ghana : how equity in service delivery affects educational and learning outcomes. Exceptional Children, 63 (3), 405-418. These findings are consistent with research studies which point to a generally positive view held by teachers in mainstream settings regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. Ofori-Addo, L Worgbeyi, N. & Tay, K. (1999). Inclusive Education: a casebook and readings for prospective and practicing teachers. The variables selected for the study, (inclusive education practices, educators’ attitudes toward including students with disabilities, educators' knowledge of inclusive education practices, and principals’ expectations) when seen in the context of Ajzen’s (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior and Allport`s (1954) Intergroup Contact Theory, collectively represent the determinants of behaviors. Wesley J. J (2010) Qualitative Document Analysis in Political Science. I can`t even hear what they say. (6th ed). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 291-299. He summarised that “Prejudice may be reduced by equal status contact between majority and minority groups in the pursuit of common goal. An Examination of Teachers‟ use of Instructional Strategies in Primary Schools in Ghana: Implication to Inclusive Education. Rigidity and curricular inflexibility is a result of teachers` attitude and poor teacher knowledge (Avoke & Avoke, 2004; Kuyini & Desai, 2006, 2009; Ocloo & Subbey, 2008; Yarboi-Tetteh, 2008; Gadagbui, 2008). The utility of Allport’s conditions of intergroup contact for predicting perceptions of improved racial attitudes and beliefs. For inclusive education to be achievable and successful, clear education policies and guidelines, well-trained teacher, allocation of appropriate resources, and appropriate use of these resources in addition to teaching and learning activities are among the factors that need Contact situations that encourage rapprochement between the different groups are that intimate contact permits the discovery of unique aspects of one’s counterpart in the other group. Welch, M. (1989). Exceptional Children, 67, 115-135. Cook, S.W. Some call us names which we don’t like said another student and sometimes I don’t feel like playing because other students tease me and teachers don’t do anything to stop those who bully us. History of Colonial Education in Ghana, Education du ring Self Governance, and Adaptation of Foreign Models i nto Ghana’s Educational System. Alhassan, A. M. (2014). Ghana’s Inclusive Education Policy, together with its comprehensive implementation plan (2015–2019), has introduced Inclusive Education in schools countrywide. In S. E. Wade. This picture of Ghana’s inclusion program from the forgoing creates a crucial need for broader investigation into inclusive school practices, the nature of school-principals’ and teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion and their knowledge of inclusive education. Qualitative data was analysed using observations, conversational and textual analysis of data. Reducing explicit and implicit prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. Interpersonal and attitudinal outcomes in cooperating interracial groups. 2.3.3 Ghana’s experience with inclusive education 33 2.3.3.1 Disability in Ghana 33 2.3.4 Special needs and inclusion in Tanzania 34 2.3.4.1 Legislation and policy 35 . (1978). Progress has also been made on access to secondary education. Implementation of Inclusive Education in Ghanaian Primary Schools: A Look at Teachers` Attitudes. Gyimah, E. K. 2010. International Journal of Whole schooling, 4 (1) 22-38, Kuyini, A. Inclusive education means all children in the same classrooms, in the same schools. & Grant-Thompson, S. (1998). http:/imp.sagepub.com. TYPES OF INCLUSION A. The Community-based Rehabilitation Programme in Ghana: In Examples of good practice in special needs education & community-based programmers. The purpose of this policy is to create an education system that is responsive to learner diversity and ensures that all learners are able to receive the best opportunities regardless of the their disability status. Det kvalitative Forskningsintervju. Such a conclusion is supported in the current study where the students requiring major and minor curriculum changes were also less favored in company with those requiring Braille and those students using sign language. Ntombela, S. (2009) Are we there yet? Asked about students playing and learning activities, one of the disabled students said they feel good during playtime there they play well with other students. Asked what it was to implement Inclusive Education in the regular classroom, three attitude factors were produced and reported by the teachers (Table 3). INCLUSIVE MODEL Partial Inclusion Students with moderate to severe disabilities are included in a regular education classroom, but are pulled for required services such as speech or occupational therapy to a more segregated setting. Studies have revealed that teachers` attitudes toward students with disabilities are different, and these various differences/reasons are dependent on schools` practices of inclusion. Teachers` attitudes though, deeply entrenched in the religious and cultural beliefs, is also due to the gap existing between either misinformation or lack of information or both about implementation of inclusive education policies. inclusive education is an approach that looks into how to transform education systems and other learning environments in order to respond to the diversity of learners. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008. These factors included physical disabilities, visual/hearing disabilities and intellectual disabilities. The narrative of the teacher had support from other teachers and the school principal. Thus the proximal cause of behavior is the individual’s intention to engage in the behavior. Development of a scale to measure attitudes toward inclusive education. The results showed that teachers are more positive to include students with minor mobility problems, verbal aggression as well as shy and withdrawn students than visual and hearing impairment and those with speech problems. Department of Educational Foundations, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. Inclusive education is the most effective way to give all children a fair chance to go to school, learn and develop the skills they need to thrive. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. Stanovich, P.J. Vaughn, S., Kim, A-H., Sloan, C.V.M., Hughes, M. T., Elbaum, B. Deaux, K. Dane, C.F. Intergroup Contact Theory is used intensively by researchers to reduce tension among groups (Brown & Hewstone, 2005; Dovidio et al., 2003; Pettigrew, 1998), and, indeed, there is impressive evidence that positive contact is associated with more favorable attitudes toward the out-group (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). (2000), Stanovich, & Jordon, (2002) and Moberg, Zumberg, and Reinmaa (1997) stated that educator beliefs, perceptions and training should be viewed as potentially influential antecedents to their commitment toward implementing a successful inclusion policy. Thus in the light of the Intergroup Contact Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior the present study would examine the factors of teacher efficacy, teacher knowledge and attitudes toward inclusion, teaching practices and the social status of students with disabilities in the inclusive classroom, as following the direction of the flowchart\study model below: A total of 108 teachers and 20 students participated in the study. Sharma, U. Research shows that, school is a social system with both formal and informal socialisation processes, and without formal socialisation happening among individuals and groups learning is not enhanced. The International Journal of Learning, 374 (9704), 1795-1796. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 537-540. Pettigrew, T.F., & Tropp, L. (2006). In line with attitude formation theories and results from literature (Cornoldi et al., 1998; Deaux et al, 1993; Praisner, 2003) the results of this study is similar to those of Anthony, (2011), Avramidis, et al. Thus, according to Allport (1954) the three factors that have a positive influence on the intergroup contacts are equal status within the situation, common goals and authority support. 3. To examine variables of educators` attitudes toward Inclusion. UNESCO, 2011. In 2013, the Ghana Ministry of Education in collaboration with other stakeholders announced the Inclusive Education Policy. In a group interview with students, they were asked to talk about learning and teaching activities in the classrooms and outside classrooms. This means that the more teachers and principals know about inclusive education the more they have a positive attitude towards it. O’Toole, B., Hofslett, K., Bupuru, K.A, Ofori-Addo, L. & Kotoku, G. (1996). Supporting Allport’s (1954) theory, Amir and Sharan (1984, p. The lack of support from principals in the schools (Kuyini & Desai, 2006, 2009) draws attention to the type of attitudes these principals had toward the inclusion of students with special needs into regular schools. Stein, R. M., Post, S. S. & Rinden, A. L. (2000). Social outcomes for students with and without learning disabilities in inclusive classrooms. 1073-1086. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. These identified issues raise the question of whether or not schools in Ghana are conceptualising and implementing inclusive education in line with the basic philosophical ideas, as well as research underpinning the concept. 2000; Kuyini & Desai, 2007; Sharma & Desai, 2002) as well as the use of effective teaching practices (including making instructional adaptations) to meet the needs of students with disabilities (Kuyini & Desai, 2007; Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2000). Allport, G.W. Finally, a social atmosphere or norms that encourage interpersonal and intergroup contact can facilitate rapprochement and greater understanding between members of different ethnic groups; (3) fostering interactions (Pettigrew, 2011). Tomlinson, C. A., Callahan, C. M., Romchin, E. M., Eiss, N., Imbeau, M., & Landrum, M. (1997). 2. What attitudes do teachers have toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classrooms? Teachers in this category are the few with some experience teaching students with disabilities supported by better classroom structures that appear to suit the needs of students. Increased concern has resulted as teachers feel that they have not been given any guidelines or directives about including students with disabilities into mainstream classrooms (Ntombela, 2003, 2009, 2011). United States: Prentice Hall, Inc. McClenahan, C., Cairns, E., Seamus, D. & Valerie, M. (1996). The Community-based Rehabilitation Programme in Ghana: In UNESCO, (1994) Examples of good practice in special needs education & community-based programmes. Remedial and Special Education, 19, 350-363. involved in the training of teachers for the inclusive education pilot Ghana’s special and inclusive education system is limited project. Becoming architects of communities of learning: Addressing academic diversity in contemporary classrooms. UNESCO. A JHS slow learner said he was supposed to be in JHS 3 but that he was repeated. The Teacher Educator, 37 (3), 173-185. Inclusion, Rehabilitation and Transition Services in Special Education. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers` attitudes in implementing Inclusive Education in primary and junior high secondary schools in two districts in Ghana (Bole and New Juaben). The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2011. The Journal of Special Education; Bensalem; 34/4, p. 203-213. As a result people relate to each other not group representative but as individuals. Avoke, M. K. & Avoke, S. K. (2004). Full Inclusion Students with moderate to severe … They also believe that well controlled contact between children from different ethnic groups in school can have positive effects on social interactions among groups. Remedial and Special Education, 24 (1), 2-15. Agbenyega & Deku (2011) saw teachers` unwillingness to include students with disabilities as a factor of insufficient knowledge of inclusion and the inability to manage diverse needs, as well as the lack of ability to adapt curriculum and instructional strategies to facilitate learning outcomes (Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1996). (1997). Respondents were also strong in their expression of a need for good dissemination of information, knowledge and professionalism in their attempts to include students with disabilities into mainstream classrooms. Group interviews were undertaken for reasons of contact and interactions reflecting Allport`s Theory of contact (1954), where opposing groups are put together to generate useful information for textual analysis on intergroup relationships (Favvaza & Odom, 1997; Kennedy, Shukla & Fryxell, 1997; McClenahan, Cairns et al., 1996; Pettigrew, 1998; Stein, Post & Rinden, 2000; Wittig & Grant-Thompson, 1998). Format), Citation-(BibTeX School desegregation. 10 (2011), pp. UNESCO, 2007. We are less informed about how to include students with disabilities in the normal classroom. Despite these problems, Ghana’s education system is in good condition overall compared with those of many other sub-Saharan African nations, but the country faces daunting challenges in providing inclusive, high-quality education to its youth, especially given its rapid population growth. Thus, facilitating intergroup harmony is important should be the responsibility of teachers). Teachers responded to both questionnaires and interviews while students responded to interviews only. Changes at policy level and support facilities for special needs students as an explicit concern are needed to achieve this equalization. Teachers' attitudes toward their included students with disabilities. Current Issues in Education, 14 (1). inclusive education were at times lacking in clarity, and on occasion, contradictory in the constructs associated with the concept, suggesting a lack of a uniform definition among teachers. Highlighting the importance of these elements, Avramidis, et al. Providing instruction to students with special needs in inclusive classrooms in Ghana: Issues and challenges. However over 69 million children are still out of primary school, the quality of learning in many countries remains low and many significant social, geographic and other inequities remain, including those associated with disability (UNESCO, 2007, 2011). A comparison of teachers' attitudes toward their included students with mild and severe disabilities. This statement by the teacher indicates that teachers' and principals` knowledge about and attitudes towards inclusive education are related. Muthukrishna, N., Farman, R. & Sader, S. (2000) the inclusion of children with Down syndrome in ordinary schools: a South African experience. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks & Cole Publishing. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31 (5), 428-436. Exceptional Children, 56, 515-526. Three themes of disabilities emerged from the responses of teachers; physical/social, visual/hearing and intellectual disabilities (Table 3). The USAID (through terms of growth in SPEDC and observed outcomes corresponding Education Quality for All [EQUALL] project) is the main partner to ESP 2003–2015 goals for special and inclusive education. Inclusion: A guide for educators. Retrieved from: http://ddp-ext.worldbank.org/EdStats/GHAgmrpap09.pdf (Retrieved on 2011-05-20). I don’t really know how to deal with these problems without help from colleagues. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. A Legal History of Inclusion. Teachers in the study view inclusive education as difficult, most of them agree that students with disabilities are placed into mainstream schools. Favazza, P.C. & Wrightsman, S.L. Asia & Pacific Journal on Disability, 5 (1). ' and principals know about inclusive Education as difficult, most of them agree students! Ways to teach students with special needs Education & Community-based programmes of gender differences in this regard,.! On the optimal ; Bensalem ; 34/4, p. 203-213 of literature and practice shows that the more and! D. ( 1997 ) D. ( 1997 ) similarities in the behavior comparison of teachers for the Education. 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